With the passing of every new century, Nepal witnessed many rulers and dynasties play contributing roles in molding Nepal to present days Modern Nepal. Kirantis ruled Nepal from 9th century B.C. to 1st century A.D. Later Licchavis took over Kirantis from 3rd to 13th century and then were followed by Thakuris belonging to Malla dynasty. Then Shah Dynasty held the reign.
King Prithvi Narayan Shah is solely responsible for todays modern day Nepal for he is the one who united different kingdoms into one single nation in 1769. In 1846, the Kot massacre led by Jung Bahadur Rana backseated the power of monarchy and made Rana regime more powerful. In 1950 King Tribhuvan with the support from India restored monarchy. A coalition government comprising the Nepali congress party and the Ranas was thereafter installed with the promise of free elections in 1952. In1960, King Mahendra, son of King Tribhuvan tactically established Panchayat system, meaning five councils system, by engineering a coup, declaring a new constitution, imprisoning all the leaders of the then government and enforcing a ban on all political activities. Peoples movement of 1990 opened up a new chapter for a decade of democracy in Nepal which led to multiparty democracy with constitutional monarchy.
Democracy came with heavy price leading to incompetent political leaders, political conflicts, Maoist insurgency, corruptions and downfall in national economy. Royal family massacre in 2001 left whole world in complete shock. King Gynendra was crowned Nepals king after his brother, King Birendras assassination. With the advent of 2006 all major political parties committed to reform their past mistakes and Maoist rebels came together with the support from Nepali people and jointly went on several days strikes to restore democracy. Finally, King Gynendra handed over the political power to Nepali people and democracy was once again restored in Nepal.
Nepal climate varies according to its season. Autumn and spring are the two most favorable seasons for Trekking in Nepal. Autumn starts from early September to early December and brings in clear weather with sunny days and warm nights. Whereas spring starts from the beginning of March to the end of May with occasional rain falls. From June to September, is the monsoon season.
Trekking is generally difficult and uncomfortable as the climate of Nepal at this time of year brings about hot weather and rain falls almost every day. The trails become muddy. Moreover, the mountains are usually obscured by cloud. There are, however, possibilities for summer trekking in the trans-Himalayan regions of Mustang, Dolpo and Tibet. These regions lie in a rain-shadow and therefore receive significantly less precipitation.
You can go for overland travel to enter Nepal from both India and Tibet. If you are in Tibet, you can enter Nepal by crossing the border at Kodari. Thereafter, take a bus to Katmandu. This will take you 7 to 12 hours depending on the road conditions.
The easiest and hassle free overland route to Nepal from India is via Gorakhpur using train and the Sunauli/Belahiya border post. The only direct buses from this route to Katmandu run at night and take approximately 9 hours. Raxaul/Birgung border post can also be used to visit Nepal. But this may not leave you with a pleasant traveling experience. If you are in Darjeeling you can come to Nepal via Karkabhitta. There are also several border crossings in west Nepal.
Katmandu is the only international airport in Nepal. There are a number of International Airlines with direct flights to Katmandu.
Thai Airways International operates daily flight between Bangkok and Katmandu. Qatar Airways flies daily between Doha and Katmandu with connecting flights to/from Europe and America. Gulf Air has daily flight between UAE and Katmandu with connecting flights to/from Europe and America. Air China flies between Lhasa, with connecting flights to/from mainland China.
Austrian Airlines flies between Vienna and Katmandu once a week Indian Airlines have frequent flights between Delhi, Calcutta and Katmandu.
Nepal Airlines fly - between Hong Kong and Katmandu. Between Bangkok and Katmandu. Between Singapore and Katmandu via Bangkok. Between Osaka and Katmandu via Shanghai. Between Delhi and Kathmandu. Between Bombay and Katmandu. Beside these there are Biman Bangladesh.
Jet Airways, Pakistan Airlines, connecting Kathmandu with many countries. Visa and Entry Procedure All visitors except the Indian nationals must hold passport and valid visa. Visa can be obtained at the Nepalese diplomatic missions and consulates abroad. Visa is also issued at the entry points. It can be extended at the Department of Immigration, Bhrikutimandap, and Katmandu. Children under 10 years need not pay any visa fee. People willing to get entry Visa at the air port or any of the land entry points are required to fill a visa form with passport photograph. So, please download form from the link below an get ready while you are passing through the immigration Point.
Visa Fee – Gratis visa for all tourists who visit Nepal for 3 days or less. Gratis visa for tourists of SAARC countries and People's Republic of China. Multiple entry visa- Upon arrival in the KTM airport fill out the necessary form and proceed to the visa line. US$25.00 paying for 15 days, US$40 paying for 30 days & US$100 paying for 90 days visa. Please bring 2 passport photos (one for the visa and 1 extra).
Ethnic diversity and custom of Nepal make Nepal the most fascinating tourist destination in the world. Official statistics indicates that Nepali population of around 23 millions includes more than 60 ethnic groups speaking 70 different languages and dialects.
Northern Himalayan People, Middle Hills and Valley People and Terai People make up the total populations of the nation. Sherpas, Dolpas, Lopas, Baragaonlis and Manangis come under Northern Himalayan People. Magars, Gurungs, Tamangs, Sunuwars, Newars, Thakalis, Chepangs and majority of Brahmans and Chhetris are regarded as Middle Hills and Valley People.
The Terai People are Tharus, Darai, Kumhal, Majhi and migrants from India. Nepali society is culturally influenced by caste hierarchy. Caste system comprises of Brahmin, Chettri, Vaisya and Shudra. Nepali is the official language. Nepal is a secular country. Hinduism and Buddhism are the two main religions. Official statistics shows that 89.5% of the population is Hindu, 5.3% Buddhist, 2.7% Muslim, 2.4% Shamanist and Animist, 0.1%Jain and 0.04% Christian. Regardless of ethnic background or religion, Nepali people are the most hospitable and friendly people you could ever wish to meet. Nepalese revere their guests as gods. Visit to Nepal can surely be an experience of a lifetime.